Background health modulator
Master regulator of reproduction and pregnancy and of a healthy aging
✔️ Vitamin B6 availability and inflammation
Vitamin B6 occurs in food in various forms (vitamers) and is activated within cells to pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P). It has been observed since long time that P5P levels sharply decrease during acute inflammation with less evident changes in chronic inflammation. The likely reason is that in inflamed tissues there is an increased inactivation of P5P due to oxidation and de-phosphorylation by inflammation-induced enzymes, mainly alkaline phosphatase. As a matter of fact, inflammatory processes “consume” active B6 and generate an increased demand.
✔️ Vitamin B6 availability and H2S release
The main enzymes releasing GSH and H2S are vitamin B6 dose-dependent, i.e. the more the B6, the more the activity. While normally using homocysteine to produce cysteine that feeds GSH release, at higher P5P concentration the same enzymes change their activity to use both homocysteine and cysteine to generate H2S.
✔️ A smart metabolic regulator
The combined effect of L-cystine, taurine and supraphysiological doses of B6/P5P is an increase in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, H2S will be released only where and when it is needed in response to the regulating mechanisms. In other words, Redostim’s combination of micronutrients has the ability to make cells more responsive to H2S release signals but will not produce any release in the absence of such signals.
✔️ Gasotransmitters: hidden regulators of physiology
H2S is the third discovered gasotransmitter, after nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). They are vanishing gases that escaped for long time our observation and that are now the major challenge in the metabolism research. The gases can be produced by every cell and diffuse to other cells and to the bloodstream and then disappear very fast. Anytime the gases are released thousands of proteins/enzymes change their activity. They produce deep effects and modulate every physiologic function.
✔️ H2S in the reproductive process
H2S is increasingly released throughout the reproductive process. It is released by the testes and by maturing ovarian follicles, thereafter by the corpus luteum and by the placenta, to sharply drop at time of labour. During follicular development H2S induces immunotolerant changes in the endometrium that will have to accept a semi-allogenic fetus (entirely allogenic in case of oocyte donation), which is the very first barrier to the implantation. It also inhibits the uterine contractions to avoid the expulsion of the embryo. At the same time H2S stimulates the vascularization of the endometrium to ensure adequate blood flow throughout the pregnancy. At term, the sharp drop of H2S removes the inhibition to uterine motility and triggers the labour.
✔️ H2S and progesterone
Many of the above actions are known to result from progesterone, indeed the hormone effects are largely mediated by the induction of H2S. Should this induction fail for any reasons, there would be no progesterone effects downstream. This may explain why some women experience lack of immune tolerance and/or of endometrial vascularization, leading to implantation failure, even if progesterone levels are high and why further increasing progesterone (luteal support) in these women produces little effects. The same may apply to other complications of pregnancy such as hypertension and preeclampsia.
✔️ H2S and menstrual pain
We have seen that at the end of pregnancy it is the rapid fall in the release of H2S that triggers uterine contractions and labor. In the menstrual cycle the same thing happens on a smaller scale: At mid cycle, in the absence of fertilization, the release of H2S stops triggering, also in this case, uterine contractions in order to expel the detaching mucosa (menstruation). In some women the drop in H2S can be excessive and, therefore, the equally excessive uterine contractions generate intense pain.
A positive effect of B6 on menstrual pain had been noted since the 1980s and many naturopaths actually prescribe it. In reality, the effect on H2S of standard B6 (pyridoxine) and without cystine and taurine is modest while the complete Redostim formula has a well-documented efficiency in supporting the release of H2S.
✔️ H2S, chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction
Endothelia are the cell layers lining the inner surface of blood vessels and playing as the main regulator of vasodilation, of platelets and coagulation and of molecular exchanges with the tissues. Chronic inflammation of the endothelia hampers these functions, which is called endothelial dysfunction, and is a main trigger of atherosclerosis. H2S is directly involved in all these functions and acts as a vasodilator and as inhibitor of platelet aggregation and coagulation. More important, H2S prevents the inflammation of the endothelia by keeping circulating lymphocytes at rest, i.e. does not allow them to attach to the endothelium, which would trigger the release of inflammatory cytokines.
✔️ H2S and aging
Our ability to release H2S progressively decline during aging. On the other side, the aging process is in substance the progressive deterioration of all the functions sustained by H2S. This raises the hypothesis that keeping adequate levels of H2S may delay the aging process and prolong the healthy phase of life. Based on animal models, the only so far validated intervention that expands the life span is caloric restriction and most of the humans enjoying very long life are have been conservative eaters during their life. Many of the effects of caloric restriction are mediated by the onset of a H2S-centred metabolism and the same happens in hibernating animals during their resting period.
✔️ The hybrid engine of mammalian cells
Our cells need energy to live and the energy demand is extremely high in some cells like neurons and sperms. They produce the energy they need in the form of ATP by burning fatty acids and glucose in mitochondria. A compulsory side effect of this energy production is the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) proportionally to the amount of ATP generated. Thus, cells with intensive need for ATP, e.g. sperms, produce large amounts of ROS that may eventually damage the swimming function and the integrity of DNA, e.g. DNA fragmentation in sperms. However, our cells possess the ability to shift to another energy substrate, H2S. The gas enters the respiratory chain downstream to the site of release of ROS and triggers the production of discrete amounts of ATP without adding oxidative aggression, which is a kind of “clean energy”. This is indeed the mechanism in place in caloric restriction and in hibernation. The same processes may be of great relevance in improving the bioenergetics while reducing the oxidative load in energy demanding cells, including sperms.